Backbone of the Botanical Gardens

   Backbone of the Botanical Gardens named after F.N.Rusanov of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

N.Shtonda,  T.Esipova

    The laboratory of Introduction and Acclimatization of Alien Denroflora is the backbone of the Botanical Gardens. It has four parks (expositions): North American, East Asian, Far Eastern and European-Caucasian where trees, bushes and lianas of these regions are presented. The collection of old Botanical Gardens presented by 511 species of woody plants preserved by 1946, made up the foundation for creation of this laboratory. In 1948-1949 the nurseries were laid in the new territory allocated for the creation of the Botanical Gardens. Creation of the exposition of North American woody plants began in the autumn of 1952. The plants were partly moved there from old territory of the garden.
    In 1952 the plot of exposition of European-Caucasian woody plants was laid; in 1953 – the Central Asian plants; in 1955 -   East Asian plants and in 1956 – Far Eastern plants . In 1967 the biological plot was created.
    F.N.Rusanov, the founder of the Botanical Gardens, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan headed the laboratory from the moment of its creation till 1975.
    The botanical essence of the laboratory expositions was presupposed by the idea of creation of dendrological expositions following geographical principle with disposition of plants within them in systematic order in the background of the protective belts.
    Comfortable location of excursion paths and original configuration of all dendrological expositions allow presenting many woody exhibitors (over 2500 species, forms, varieties) on the square approximating 40 hectares. The employees of the laboratory carried out introduction research of 93 genus complexes that include 1325 species on the basis of the theory of genus complexes developed by F.N.Rusanov. At present there are 1400 species and forms in the collection of the laboratory. Latest researches were connected with implementation of ecological and geographical analyses of different flora fragments presented in the exposition. Application of ecological and geographical method for assessment of the introduction results allowed identifying the criteria determining success or failure of introduction of a species in climate conditions of Uzbekistan.
    The unique collection of introduced plants is the object of both already implemented scientific and technical programs and different perspective research programs.
    In past years besides replenishment and conservation of collected introduced plants, there is sharp necessity of all-round research of genesis and behaviour strategy of created artificial cultural plant formation for reliable conservation of their components at different stages of ontogenesis. This area has become very actual because of general worsening of ecological conditions of the environment.  
    The material accumulated in the Botanical Gardens makes up the foundation for lots of practical recommendations for attraction of additional biodiversity and also methods of carrying out partial or full reconstruction of clumps of trees caused by appearance of signs of aging of planned plants. Researches of genesis of artificial cultural Botanical Gardens (expositions of the Botanical Gardens) allow identifying negative factors that not only limit lifetime of its separate elements at the every stage in the conditions of arid climate, but also form its general entire longevity.
    The process of maintenance of plant’s collection, their preservation is very difficult. It requires application of different methods from simple watering of plants to implementation of full reconstruction of existing expositions.
    One of the main conditions of preservation of collection is its constant replenishment and reproduction by means of sowing of seeds or vegetative reproduction. International currency-free exchange among different botanical organizations or bringing from natural habitats is the main sources of seed receipt.
    On the base of implemented researches specialists make conclusions on perspective of growing and longevity of certain species in different combination in created artificial plant formation. Plant complexes fit for the expansion of their introduction cultigeneous areal in  different regions of Uzbekistan are selected.
    Practical recommendations on use of some species in different branches of the Republic’s economy and methods of accelerated rhizogenesis in the course of vegetative reproduction of high decorative, but hardly adaptive plants are also worked out.
    Laboratory tries to introduce into landscaping as many species of evergreen plants as possible, both deciduous (Cherry Laurel/Prunus laurocerasus/, Southern Magnolia /Magnolia grandiflora/, species of buddleja,  Japanese Privet / Ligustrum japonicum/ and Glossy Privet /Ligustrum lucidum/) and conifers new for Uzbekistan.
        The positive influence of conifers on the environment is well known. Besides capture of dust, sound absorption, optimization of temperature and humidity of air they have sanitary function. They do not only discharge oxygen, but also the higher degree of phytoncids compared with other species of trees. These high decorative long-lived trees are important for improvement of city environment, especially in arid climate in Uzbekistan.
    Seedlings brought from countries with other climatic conditions often die or lose their ornamentality. To resolve this problem the laboratory is now developing scientifically proved assortment of decorative coniferous introduced plants for the objects of different level of importance with consideration of the requirements of modern design.
    Balsam Fir /Abies balsamea/, Greek Fir /Abies cephalonica/, Himalayan Cedar /Cedrus deodara/, Lebanon Cedar /Cedrus libani/, Ginkgo /Ginkgo biloba/, European Larch /Larix decidua/, Mountain Pine /Pinus mugo/, Common Yew /Taxus boccato/ and others are suggested to be used in landscaping.
    Thus, the laboratory takes part in development of different theoretical problems of introduction and acclimatization and also works out practical recommendations for landscaping of different aliens.         
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